Definition of Wounds

A wound is an injury to living tissue caused by a cut, blow, or other impact, typically one in which the skin is cut or broken.

Types of Wounds

Wounds can be categorized in terms of their healing period:

  • Acute Wounds

    Wounds that heal in the short term.

  • Chronic Wounds

    Wounds that heal over 8 weeks or longer with complications.

  • Acute Wound

    New wounds

    Healing can be expected within a certain period of time

    Trauma and surgical wounds

  • Chronic Wound

    Old wounds (over 8 weeks)

    Healing stops or is slow. Higher risk of complications

    Pressure wounds, diabetic ulcer, ulcers caused by varicose veins or radiation therapy

Color of Wound

  • Black

    • Necrotic tissue
    • Shortage of blood flow to wound
    • Quaggy or hard dry
    • Needs debridement or further treatment with antibiotic
  • Yellow

    • Slough, Infection
    • Necrotic tissue causes cells to die and breaks into fragments. Slough presents as thin, thick or sticky
    • Looks yellow or white with yellow-green or yellow-white exudate
    • Remove slough. Control exudate with antibiotic
  • Red

    • Healthy granulation tissue
    • Healthy blood flow on wound which presents an excellent healing environment
    • Clean or healing wounds
    • Need to control exudate under minimal moist environment. Apply hydrocolloid dressing
  • Pink

    • Epithelial tissue
    • Little exudate till surface of wound is flattened
    • Transparent with light color of pearl pink
    • Avoid friction and cut on wound. Apply hydrocolloids dressing

Wound Evaluation

First degree: injuries that affect the stratum corneum and the epidermis

Second degree: injuries that affect the epidermis and the dermis

Third degree: injuries that affect the dermis

Fourth degree: injuries that affect the hypodermis and deeper

Skin Structure

Skin is composed of three layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis. Skin functions: barrier for protection, absorption, receptors, body temperature regulation, metabolism and excretion.

Layers of human skin:

Epidermis/Dermis/Subcutaneous tissue

Skin appendages:

Hair/Vessels/Nerves/Muscle/Sweat glands/Sebaceous glands